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Alprazolam Xanax 1mg by Pfizer 1 Strip

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Description

Alprazolam is in a group of drugs called benzodiazepines (ben-zoe-dye-AZE-eh-peens). It works by slowing down the movement of chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced. This results in a reduction in nervous tension (anxiety).

Alprazolam is used to treat anxiety disorders, panic disorders, and anxiety caused by depression.

Alprazolam may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.

Xanax®

(Alprazolam)

NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT

Xanax®

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION

Chemical Name

Alprazolam is chemically 8-chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-4H-s-triazolo [4,3-a] [1,4] benzodiazepine.

Each immediate-release (IR) tablet contains 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg or 1 mg of alprazotam.

PHARMACEUTICAL FORM

Immediate-release tablets.

THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS

Alprazolam is indicated for the treatment-of:

  • Anxiety.
  • Depression (usage has not been established in depression with psychotic features, in bipolar disorders, or in “endogenous” depression).
  • Mixed anxiety-depression.
  • Anxiety, mixed anxiety-depression, or depression associated with other functional or organic disease-
  • Panic disorders.

POSOLOGY AND METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION

Alprazolam Tablets: The optimum dose should be individualized based upon the severity of the symptoms and individual patient response. )n patients who require higher doses, dosage should be increased cautiously to avoid adverse effects. In general, patients who have not previously received psychotropic medications will require somewhat lower doses than those previously treated with minor tranquilizers, antidepressants, or hypnotics. It is recommended that the general principle of using the lowest effective dose be followed in elderly or debilitated patients to preclude-the development-of ataxia or over sedation.

Duration of Treatment: Data are available to support usage for up to 6 months for anxiety and depression and for up to 8 months in the treatment of panic disorder.

Discontinuation of Treatment: To discontinue Alprazolam treatment, the dosage should be reduced slowly in keeping with good medical practice. It is suggested that the daily dosage of Alprazolam be decreased by no more than 0.5 mg every 3 days. Some patients may require an even slower dosage reduction (see section Special Warnings and Precautions for Use).

Pediatric Use: Safety and efficacy have not been established in children under 18 years of age-

Posology

 

Alprazolam IR Tablets

 

Indication or Population

 

Usual Starting Dose

(if side effects occur,

dose should be lowered)

 

Usual Dose Range

 

Anxiety

 

0.75 to 1.5 mg daily given in divided doses

 

0.5 to 4 mg given in divided doses

 

Depression

 

1.5 mg daily given in divided doses

 

1.5 to 4.5 mg given in divided doses

 

Panic Disorders

 

0.5 to 1.0 mg given at bedtime or 0.5mg three times daily

 

Dose should be adjusted to patient response with increments no greater thai 1 mg/day every 3 to 4 days. Additional doses can be added until a schedule of three or four times daily is achieved.

[The mean dose in a large multi-clinic study was 5.7 ± 2.27 mg, with occasional patients requiring a maximum of 10 mg/day.]

 

Geriatric Patients

 

0.5 to 0.75 mg daily given in divided doses

 

0.5 to 0.75 mg/day, given in divided doses; may be

gradually increased if needed and tolerated.

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Xanax® is contraindicated in patients with known sensitivity to the benzodiazepines, Alprazolam,.or to any component of these products’ formulations 

SPECIAL WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS FOR USE

Caution is recommended when treating patients with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Habituation and emotional/physical dependence may occur with benzodiazepines, including Alprazolam. As with all benzodiazepines, the risk of dependence increases with higher doses and long-term use and is further increased in patients with a history of alcoholism or drug abuse.

Withdrawal symptoms have occurred following rapid decrease or abrupt discontinuance of benzodiazepines including Alprazolam. These can range from mild dysphoria and insomnia to a major syndrome which may include abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting, sweating, tremor, and convulsions. In addition, withdrawal seizures have occurred upon rapid decrease or abrupt discontinuation of therapy with Alprazolam (see section Posology and Method of Administration -Discontinuation of Treatment).

Panic disorders have been associated with primary and secondary major depressive disorders and increased reports of suicide among untreated patients. Therefore, the same precaution must be exercised when using the higher doses of Alprazolam in treating patients with panic disorders as is exercised with the use of any psychotropic drug in treating depressed patients or those in. whom there is reason to expect concealed suicidal idealization or plans.

Administration to severely depressed or suicidal patients should be done with appropriate precautions and appropriate size of the prescription.

Episodes of hypo mania and mania have been reported in association with the use of Alprazolam in patients with depression.

The use of Alprazolam has not been established in certain types of depression (see section Therapeutic Indications).

INTERACTION WITH OTHER MEDICINAL PRODUCTS AND OTHER FORMS OF INTERACTION

Benzodiazepines produce additive CNS depressant effects when co-administered with alcohol or other drugs producing CNS depression.

Pharmacol kinetic interactions of benzodiazepines with other drugs have been reported. For example, the clearance of Alprazolam and certain other benzodiazepines can be delayed by the co-administration of cimetidine or macrolide. antibiotics. The clinical significance of this is unclear.

Pharmacol kinetic interactions can occur when Alprazolam is administered along with drugs that interfere with its metabolism. Compounds which inhibit certain hepatic enzymes (particularly cytochrome P4503A4) may increase the concentration of Alprazolam and enhance its activity. Data from clinical studies with Alprazolam, in vitro studies with Alprazolam, and clinical studies with drugs metabolized similarly to Alprazolam provide evidence for varying degrees of interaction and possible interaction with Alprazolam for a number of drugs. Based on the degree of interaction and the type of data available, the following recommendations are made:

  • The co-administration of Alprazolam with ketoconazole, itraconazole, or other azole-type anti fungal is not recommended.
  • Caution and consideration of dose reduction is recommended-when Alprazolam is co-administered with nefazodone, fluvoxamine, and cimetidine.
  • Caution is recommended when Alprazolam is co-administered with fluoxetine,
  • propoxyphene, oral contraceptives, diltiazem, or macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin and troleandomycin
  • Interactions involving HIV protease inhibitors (eg, ritonavir) and Alprazolam are complex and time dependent. Low doses of ritonavir resulted in a large impairment of Alprazolam clearance, prolonged its elimination halt-life and enhanced clinical effects. However, upon extended exposure to ritonavir, CYP3A induction offset this inhibition. This interaction will require a dose-adjustment or discontinuation of Alprazolam.
  • increased digoxin concentrations have been reported when Alprazolam was given, especially in elderly (>65 years of age). Patients who receive Alprazolam and digoxin should therefore be monitored for signs and symptoms related to digoxin toxicity.

FERTILITY, PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

Pregnancy

The data concerning teratogenicity and effects on postnatal development and behavior following benzodiazepine treatment are inconsistent. There is evidence from some early studies with other members of the benzodiazepine class that in utero exposure may be associated with malformations, Later studies with the benzodiazepine class of drugs have provided no clear evidence of any type of defect. Infants exposed to benzodiazepines during late third trimester of pregnancy or during labor have been reported to exhibit either the floppy infant syndrome or neonatal withdrawal symptoms. If Alprazolam is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking Alprazolam, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus-Breastfeeding. Levels of benzodiazepines. including Alprazolam, in breast milk are low. However; nursing should not be undertaken while using benzodiazepines.

EFFECTS ON ABILITY TO DRIVE AND USE MACHINES

As with other CNS active drugs, patients receiving Xanax® should be advised not to operate motor vehicles or dangerous machinery until it is established that they do not become drowsy or dizzy while receiving Xanax®.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Adverse events, if they occur, are generally observed at the beginning of therapy

and usually disappear upon continued medication or decreased dosage.

Undesirable effects associated with Alprazolam therapy in patients participating

in controlled clinical studies and with post-marketing experience are were as

follows:

MedDRA System Organ Class Very Common =1/10 Common =1/100 to<1/1o Uncommon =1/1 000 to <1/100 Rare =1/1 0 000 to <1/1 000 xa <1/1 0 000 Frequency not known (cannot be estimated arable data)
Endocrine Disorders     Hyperprolactinae      
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders   Decreased appetite        
Psychiatric Disorders Depression Confusional Slate, libido decreased, nervousness Hypomania’,, section Special Warnings and Precautions for Use). hallucination’, anger*, aggression*. hostiirty*. agitation”, libido disorder”, thinking psyctiofnotor hyperadivity’      
Nervous System Disorders Sedation, somnolence. impairment. dysartliria, headache Balance disorder, coordination abnormal i disturbance in attention. flypersomnia, lethargy, tremor Amnesia, dystonia’     Autonomic nervous system imbalance*

Sedation, somnolence. impairment. dysartliria, headache Balance disorder, coordination abnormal i disturbance in attention. flypersomnia, lethargy, tremor
Eye Disorders   Vision blurred        
Gastrointestinal Disorders Constipation. dry mouth Nausea Gastrointestinal disorder”      
Hepalobiliafy Disorders     Hepatitis- hepatic 1 unction abnormal’, jaundice*      
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders   Dermatitis’       Angioedema ‘,ptiotosenslt iuityreaction’
Musculoskelatal. Connective Tissue and Bone Disorders     Muscular weakness      
Renal and Urinary Disorders     Incontinence’, urinary retention’      
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders   Sexual dysfunction- Menstruation irregular’      
General Disorders and Administration SHe Conditions Fatigue. I rn lability          
Investigations   Weight decreased. weigh! increased Intraocular Increased’      

 

same order of magnitude as that of Alprazolam. The benzophenone metabolite is essentially inactive.

Alprazolam and its metabolites are excreted primarily in the urine. In vitro, Alprazoiam is bound (80%) to human serum protein.

PRECLINICAL SAFETY DATA

Mutaoenesis, Carcinogenesis, Fertility, and Ocular Effects Alprazolam was not mutagenic in the in vitro Ames test. Alprazolam did not produce chromosomal aberrations in the in vivo micronucleus assay in rats up to Hie highest dose tested of 100 mg/kg, which is 500 times greater than the maximum recommended daily human dose of 10 mg/day.

No evidence of carcinogenic potential was observed during 2-year bioassay studies of Alprazolam in rats at doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (150 times the maximum recommended daily human dose of 10 mg/day) and in mice at doses up to 10 mg/kg/day (50 times the maximum recommended daily human dose of 10 mg/day).

Alprazolam did not impair fertility in rats up to the highest dose tested of 5 mg/kg/day, which is 25 times the maximum recommended daily human dose of 10 mg/day.

When rats were treated orally with atprazolam at 3,10, and 30 mg/kg/day (15 to 150 times the maximum recommended daily human dose of 10 mg/day) for 2 years, a tendency for a dose related increase in the number of cataracts (females) and cornea! vascularization (males) was observed. These lesions did not appear until after 11 months of treatment.

PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

SHELF LIFE

36 months.

SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS FOR STORAGE

Store below 30°C.

Protect from light and moisture.

Keep all medicines out of the reach of children.

NATURE AND CONTENTS OF CONTAINER

Xanax® tablets are supplied in blister pack of 30’s.

 

Many of the spontaneous case reports of adverse behavioral effects, patients were receiving other CNS drugs concomitantly and/or were described as having underlying psychiatric conditions. Patients who have borderline personality disorder, a prior history of violent or aggressive behavior, or alcohol or substance abuse may be at risk for such events. Instances of irritability, hostility and intrusive thoughts have been reported during discontinuance of alprazolam in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.

OVER DOSAGE

Symptoms of overdose with Alprazolam are extensions of its pharmacological action and include drowsiness, slurred speech, motor incoordination, coma and respiratory depression. Serious sequela are rare unless other drugs and/or ethanol are concomitantly ingested. Treatment of over dosage is primarily supportive of respiratory and cardiovascular function. The value of dialysis has not been determined. Flumazenil may be used as an adjunct to the management of respiratory and cardiovascular function associated with overdose.

PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

PHARMACOL DYNAMICS

Xanax® tablets contain a tri-azolo-benzodiazepam. The benzodiazepines have qualitatively similar properties: anxiolysis, hypnosedation, myo re taxation, anti convulsion. There are, however, quantitative differences in their pharmacol dynamic properties that have led to varying patterns of therapeutic application. Currently, there is a general agreement that the action of benzodiazepines is a result of the potenliation of the neural inhibition that is mediated by gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA).

PHARMACOL KINETICS

Following oral administration, peak concentrations in the plasma occur in 1 to 2 hours following administration. The mean half-life of Alprazolam is 12-15 hours.

Alprazolam is mainly oxidized. The predominant metabolites are alpha-hydroxy- Alprazolam and a benzophenone derived from Alprazolam. Plasma levels of these metabolites are extremely low. The biological activity of alpha-hydroxy-Alprazolam is approximately one-half that of Alprazolam.

Manufactured by:

Pfizer Pakistan Ltd.

B-2, S.i.T.E., Karachi, Pakistan.

IN-Pfts22-R5

99991222

Xanax/LPD/PK-03

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